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PD-L1 & PD-L2


This study examined the potential utility of the YE361 STAT6A monoclonal antibody for differentiating Hodgkin from non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The team assessed over 100 HL and non-HL biopsies using STAT6A immunohistostaining. Whole exome sequencing was performed on 2 STAT6A-positive cases to detect mutations in STAT6A pathway genes. Empire Genomics’ PD-L1 FISH probe was also used to determine the degree of PD-L1 amplification in one patient, who’d originally been diagnosed with classical HL but relapsed 4 years later with gray zone lymphoma. Interestingly, both the original and relapsed biopsy were negative for STAT6A, but PD-L1 amplification was found in both, suggesting that PD-L1 amplification occurs independently of upstream STAT6A activation.

Published: 12/10/2019

Related Probes: PD-L1 Fish Probe


Primary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL) is a particularly aggressive DLBCL subtype, generally restricted to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, or eyes. Its confinement to the CNS suggests that the tumor microenvironment (TME) might contribute to its aggressive behavior, and the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint could serve as a possible therapeutic target. This team investigated both the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint and the composition of the TME in 57 PCNS-DLBCs using IHC and FISH. Our PD-L1 break apart probe was used to detect PD-L1 rearrangements.

Published: 12/06/2019

Related Probes: PD-L1 Break Apart Fish Probe


BCR encodes a receptor expressed on both normal B-cells and their neoplastic counterparts. Studies have shown that BCR stabilizes and promotes MYC expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). As MYC can directly bind the PD-L1 promoter, the team hypothesized that BCR drives PD-L1 expression through amplification of MYC. They investigated this relationship using qPCR, immunoblotting and flow cytometry in DLBCL cell lines. PD-L1 rearrangements were detected using Empire Genomics’ PD-L1 break-apart probe. Results supported their hypothesis, pointing to BCR as an upregulator of PD-L1 via amplified MYC.

Published: 06/13/2019

Related Probes: PD-L1 Break Apart Fish Probe


Systemic, primary cutaneous, and breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphomas, although diverse in their clinical features, can be difficult to distinguish histopathologically. This study sought to cytogenetically discern between these 3 lymphoma subtypes using IHC and FISH. Twenty-two S-ALCLs, 13 PC-ALCLs, and 2 BI-ALCLs were analyzed. Empire Genomics' PD-L1 and TP63 break apart probes were used to detect PD-L1 and TP63 rearrangements.

Published: 04/01/2019

Related Probes: PD-L1 Break Apart Fish Probe


Undifferentiated malignancies (UMs) are a set of aggressive tumors that pose a challenge both diagnostically and clinically due to poor cell lineage differentiation. It is thought that UMs are likely to be affected by checkpoint inhibitors. To predict the responsiveness of checkpoint inhibitors, aberrations in PD-L1 and chromosomal 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 can be analyzed. FISH analysis was performed with our PD-L1, PD-L2 and chromosome 9 centromere probes. The results showed that many UMs express PD-L1 aberration. Additionally, UMs may be sensitive to checkpoint inhibitors which suggests treatment options.

Published: 11/30/2018

Related Probes: CD274 (PD-L1) Fish Probe


The antitumor immune response of PD-L1 has clinical value in EBV-negative diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The association between PD-L1 and pSTAT3 expression/gene alteration wih EBV-negative DLBCL was under analysis. FISH analysis was used with our PD-L1 break apart and PD-L1/chromosome 9 probes. It was found that gene alteration and protein expression of PD-L1 and pSTAT3 expression were closely related in DLBCL.

Published: 10/31/2018

Related Probes: PD-L1 Break Apart Fish Probe


Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a form of lymphoma with a poor prognosis. The genetics of DLBCL were under analysis. One focus of the experiment was the presence of a PD-L1/PD-L2 aberration. FISH analysis was used with our PD-L1 and PD-L2 probes to look for translocations of these genes. This translocation was present in 40% of DLBCL-LT (leg type) samples. The presence of this translocation as well as associated over expression in some of the samples suggest novel therapeutic approaches for DLBCL-LT.

Published: 10/31/2018

Related Probes: PD-L1 Fish Probe


Tumor cells can display PD-L1 and PD-L2 to evade T-cell detection, allowing them to grow and proliferate without immune interference. In classical Hodgkin lymphoma, malignant cells have been found to upregulate PD-L1 expression via copy gains in the 9p24.1 region where PD-L1 and PD-L2 are found. This team wanted to find out whether the same mechanism is used by cancer cells in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCBCL). Empire Genomics’ PDL1 and PDL2 break-apart probes were used to detect aberrations in the genes in a series of DLBCL tumors. Of the 105 DLBCL cases analyzed, 27% were found to have PD-L1 alterations.

Published: 07/01/2018

Related Probes: PD-L2 Break Apart Fish Probe